Seismic Operation

 

The most difficult aspect of oil and gas production is the location of oil and gas reserves. UDX utilizes modern seismic methods to assist in locating those oil and gas reserves. Seismic surveys can be utilized for a variety of purposes but they are primarily used for oil and gas exploration.

 

UDX uses 3-D seismic in order to show the sub-surface structures which could yield potential oil and gas deposits. In the past, dynamite was used to create waves of energy that was then read by seismic machines. Today, we have moved past the dynamite to a less invasive method of seismic study. UDX utilizes 3-D seismic studies that merely vibrate the surface sending waves of energy below. The sensitive equipment used is able to pick up the waves and show what is below the surface by the positioning of sensors located on the surface. These sensors resemble a sprinkler head in most modern home sprinkler systems. Seismic images are produced by generating, recording, and analyzing sound waves that travel through the Earth (such waves are also called seismic waves). Below is a photograph of one such sensor.

 

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Density changes between rock or soil layers reflect the waves back to the surface, and how quickly and strongly the waves are reflected back indicates what lies below. Modern Vibroseis trucks have a large pad that is lowered from the vehicle to the surface and then vibrated to generate the seismic waves.

 

Vibroseis trucks and buggies come in a variety of designs and sizes, but all of them generally release less energy than is generated from the older shot holes. All have a large pad that is lowered from the vehicle to the surface and then vibrated to generate seismic waves. In an urban environment, vibroseis-generated waves are less than background noise generated by buses, trucks, and trains (repeated signals are used in order to be distinguishable from background noise). At its source you can feel a vibroseis shake the ground but as you move away your ears will hear the airborne sound waves much longer than your feet can feel those in the ground.

 

These sensors, for the most part, are located in a six foot circle and are connected by a wire resembling a telephone line. That wire is located on a 160 foot spacing. Once the data is gathered, the lines and sensors are rolled up and moved to the next location. This methodology provides a faster and less invasive means of seismic study minimizing surface disturbance.

 

UDX starts the seismic process by surveying the land that will be visited for the seismic study. Stakes may be placed on the property showing the location of the sensors. This gives the landowner an opportunity to see where the lines and sensors will be placed and an opportunity to comment or express any concerns about the placement of the sensors. UDX does not place any sensors within 100 feet of a home or other significant structure. After the survey has been completed, then seismic operations can commence.

 

The Oklahoma Seismic Exploration Regulation Act, 52 O.S. section 318.21 et. Seq. and the Oklahoma Administrative Code Section 165:10-7-31 govern, in part, some of the activities of a seismic study. Oklahoma law provides that a seismic study may be conducted without permission of the surface landowner provided that the seismic operator has permission from the mineral owner and has given the surface owner 15 days notice prior to commencing the seismic operations.

 


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